Category Archives: Knowledge Managemen

Knowledge Management System in Company as Implementation Business Strategy

Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include information, facts, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be explicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoritical understanding of a subject), and it can be more or less formal or systematic. (wikipedia)

Knowledge Level 

  1. Know What –> Congnitive knowledge (training, studi, etc)
  2. Know How  –> Simple application
  3. Know Why  –> Understanding system, causality, complicated problems, and make new solution for new problem
  4. Care Why    –> Level self-motivated creativity to inovation, from jump imaginatif & lateral thinking

Types and forms Knowledge

  1. Active Missing Knowledge = you know what, you don’t know
  2. Explicit Knowledge = you know what, you know

Knowledge that has been captured and is expressed in the words, text and picture. already exists in the form of real.

  1. Passive Missing Knowledge = you don’t know what, you don’t know
  2. Tacit Knowledge = you don’t know what, you know

Knowledge that is difficult articulated, written in words, text, or picture, was in the minds of those who know.

The more tacit knowledge, the more valuable knowledge

The Purpose Knowledge Managent

  • Facilitate the transition of the old with the new employee
  • Minimize loss of “knowledge” for the release of employees
  • Know the resources and critical knowledge possessed era
  • Develop methods to prevent the loss of corporate intellectual property

Knowledge Management Phases

Application Features Supporting Knowledge Management System

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Knowledge Management in Practice

Under the aegis of knowledge management, there are three types of processes that are generally considered to be essential: finding or uncovering knowledge [Ehrlich, K., 2003, Learn, L., 2002, Zack,M., 1999], sharing knowledge [Ackerman et al., 2003], and the development of new knowledge [Argyris and Schon, 1978, 1996,Baumard, P., 1999,Harvard Business Review, 1998].

KM IN PRACTICE – PROCESSES

FINDING INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

One aspect of finding and dissemination of information is the organization of knowledge objects so that they can be found easily. Assigning index terms, tagging or, in the case of an intranet and theWeb, metadata, allows ease of retrieval [Learn, L., 2002]. Digitally recorded presentations, brochures, reports of lessons learned, and best practices can all be made accessible through careful indexing and intelligent information architecture [Morville, P.,2005,Rosenfeld and Morville,2002]. Finding information and knowledge refers to processes that allow organizations to make sense and make use of data, information, and knowledge objects that may be present but are not codified, analyzed, nor accessible to members.

SHARING INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Sharing of information for knowledge development is the most traditional collection of processes, easily understood, but often overlooked in a systematic knowledge management program. Sharing refers to the willingness and ability of the knowledgeable to share what they know to help others expand their own learning and knowing. Don’t forget to broadcast your knowledge hopelly the other people knows about everything that you have something knowledge.

DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge development takes place when individuals work to create new understandings, innovations, and a synthesis of what is known already together with newly acquired information or knowledge.

KM IN PRACTICE – PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES

KNOWLEDGE AUDIT
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Knowledge “Acts”

For the occurrence of a knowledge that there are some things that need to be needed, that is ;

1. Question (Question & Answer)

2. Posting Content and repositories

3. Repeats (Using the Knowledge)

4. Knowledge-Based Decision Making

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Question Asking and Answering

Question asking and answering is a foundational process by which what people know tacitly becomes expressed, and hence, externalized as knowledge. To support such a view, we borrow from speech acts theory [Searle, J., 1969] that amongst others categorizes question asking as a form of a speech act.

Posting Content  to Repositories

Contributing content such as lessons-learned, project experiences, and success stories is another approach to knowledge sharing. Selvin and Buckingham [2002] describe a tool, Compendium, that claims to support rapid knowledge construction.They ground their claim on an empirical case study of its use in a corporate contingency planning situation by demonstrating the creation of knowledge content in a real time ‘on-the-fly’mode of content authoring, complemented by collaborative validation.

(RE) Using Knowledge

Assert that the decision to consume knowledge can be framed as a problem of risk evaluation, with perceived complexity and relative advantage being identified as factors relating to intentions to “consume” knowledge.However, it is essential that the knowledge consumer is able to reasonably frame his or her knowledge needs. Desouza et al. [2006].

For such a purpose,Hicks et al. [2002] propose a practical framework for the requirements of capturing, storing, and reusing information and knowledge in engineering design.They distinguish between the process that generates knowledge and the knowledge element generated by the process.
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Conceptualizing Knowledge Emergence

Tusman, M [1977], Tushman and Scanlan [1981 a,b] further examined development activities, both at the departemental level and ay the project level, he introduce and added the concept of “Boundary Spanning”  or boundary spanner to describe very much the same phenomenon that described as gatekeeping. He extended Allen’s work by distinguishing between two types of communication stars, “Internal communication stars” and “external communication stars”, and definding boundry spanners as those who ware both internal and external communication stars. In the context of KM, this tradition relates very directly to the development of Communities of Practice (Cop). Given the relative non-aligment of organizational structure and informationflow and sharing, CoP’s can be seen as the setting up of an alternative structure to facilitate information flow and sharing.

Research Productivity and Knowledge

The more productive companies were characterized by ;

1. A relatively egalitarian managerial structure with unobtrusive status indicators in the R&D enviroment

2. Less concern with protecting proprietary information

3. Greater openness to outside information, greater use of their libraries and information centers, specifically, greater attendance by employees at profesional meetings.

4. Greater information system development effort.

5. Greater technical and subject sophisticated of the information service staff.

Lack of recognition of these findings in the business community

particularly striking was the finding that not only did information related management behaviour tend strongly to discriminate between “high-performance” and “low-performance” companies, but also that none of the non information related management behaviours measured bad any discriminatory value.  the given inability to find any significance for other managerial factors, the failure to remark upon the importance of information and knowledge factors can truly be described as remarkable.
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Theorizing Knowledge in Organization

This chapter provides an overview of the development of research findings and theories related to knowledge management.

In the resource view, knowledge is conceptualized as an object that exists largely in formal documents or online artifacts amenable to organizing and manipulation. The process view, on the other hand, largely emphasized the emergent nature of knowledge that is often embedded within o person or within organizational routines, activities, and outcomes, or arises from the interplay of person and exiting information or knowledge. While both perspective may very significantly in terms of the scope for the “Management” of knowledge, it is still worth exploring the issues and debate surrounding practice of creating, gathering, and sharing knowledge within organization.

Knowledge as Resource and Process

It is held that the knowledge that the firm possesses is a source of sustainable competitive advantage, and is, accordingly regarded as a strategic resource of the firm in need of management attention. On the other hand, through the process view, organizations are thought of as information processing and knowledge generating system [Grant, R., 1996].
Baumard, P. [1999] proposes looking at knowledge in organization along two dimensions: tacit explicit versus individual-collective. He divines for quadrats in which knowledge types are situated: tacit-individual (intuitiveness), tacit-collective (social practice), explicit-individual (expertise), and explicit-collective (rules).

So, participation from the group’s member in organization is more hopely in the increasing organization objectiveness..

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Chapter 3. Knowledge Management (KM) Process in Organization that was writen by Claire R. McInerney and Michael E.D. Koenig

Background Bibliographic Analysis of Knowledge Management

One measure of the influence of a decipline is to track the “Formal Communications” or published works is that discipline [Koenig, M., 2005, Ponzi, L., 2004]. Ponzi observed that “Knowledge management is one emerging discipline taht remains strong and does not appear to be fading” [Ponzi, L., 2004, p. 9]. Almost certainly underestimates the size of the KM literatur. in the early years of KM, it was probably a very safe a ssumtion that almost all KM articles would have the is no longer a safe assumption. The significance of the KM growth pattern becomes much more apparent when one compares it with the pattern of other major business enthusiasms of recent years. The difference is dramatic, Quality Cirles, Business Process Engineering, and Total Quality Management all show an almost identical pattern of approximatly five years of dramatic, exponential, growth, then they peak and fail off to near nothing almost as quickly.

The number of scholarly papers and dissertations devoted to KM demonstrates that there has been and continues to be a scholalry interest in knowledge management even if that research has taken a small downturn. An examinition of the types of research being conducted shows that over the years subject matter of KM studies has changed somewhat from emphasis on technological systems to focus on communication and interaction among people.

The terminology has changed as well. Although “Knowledge Management” may have been commonly used in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, scholars have adopted terms as “Knowledge Sharing”, “Comminities of Practice”, and “Learning Organization” as knowledge management processes became more mainstream in organitation. As the twenty-first century has progressed, searches on “Knowledge Management” have revelated that scholarly works on knowledge sharing have increasingly been combined with research on social networking and social media.

An interesting obeservation is that there was a vey brief spurt of articles about KM in journals devoted to education, but that interest soon wanted. This is likely a function of the fact that KM, as mentioned previously has a very coporatist and organizational emphasis, while for most academic principals, the faculty, their commitment to their field, their descipline and sub-descipline, their “invisible college” comes first. their commitment to their nomilan home institution is quite

 

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Knowledge Management (KM) Process in Organization that was writen by Claire R. McInerney and Michael E.D. Koenig

What is Knowledge Management

knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge. (movement, Davenport, T. 1994). A discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, capturing, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing all of enterprise’s assets. These assets may include databases, documents, policies, procedures, and previously uncaptured expertise and experience in individual workers. (Duhon, 1998).  The Third definition by McLnerney, C (2002) is that “Knowledge Management” is an effort to encrease useful knowledge within the organization.

the principles and practise of KM have develop in a very conducive enviroment, given that in this post-industrial information age, an increasingly larger proportion of the polulation consists of information workers.  A logical development then to attempt and apply those successful enviromental aspects to knowledge workers at large.

Work becomes more effective and efficient if the coorporate use the Information System and  Information Technology with good. the work is certainly not just IS / IT is a major focus, because the organization in a corporate environment also becomes an important aspect of the sustainability of the road business.

The book was explained about four stage to development a management knowledge. The Three Stages of KM

Stage 1 : “By the internet out of intellectual Capital”. certainly the use of the Internet can help facilitate access to data and information for companies to access information from internal and ekesternal companies, and provide uptodate the data and information.

Stage 2: “Human and cultural dimension, the HR, Human Relation stage”. is, if a company has employees who have manners, good behavior, obey the rules, etc. The company must be able to control every employee can work in accordance with whatthe want and achieve the targets the company set. (do communication with employees, a good culture of the organization in the company,etc.)

Stage 3: “Content and Retrievability”. must know what the content, structure in management company.

Stage 4: “Access to External Information”. emphases upon external information and the recognition of the important of context and external information, external information related to the company off course.

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Knowledge Management (KM) Process in Organization that was writen by Claire R. McInerney and Michael E.D. Koenig

intoduction knowledge management

Preliminary

Knowledge Management  is a collection of tools, techniques, and strategies to maintain, analyze, organize, enhance, and share understanding and experience. Understanding and experience of such a building on the knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in the actual application process and an organization. The focus of the Knowledge Management is to find new ways to channel raw data into useful forms of information, and finally into knowledge.

Knowledge Management Activities  is usually associated with organizational objectives such as to achieve a specific outcome such as shared knowledge, improved performance, competitive advantage, or higher levels of innovation. In general, the motivation of organizations to implement the MP include:
1. Making related to the development of knowledge products and services becomeavailable in the form of explicit
2. Achieve new product development cycle faster
3. Facilitating and managing organizational innovation and learning
4. Cog-leverage the expertise of people across the organization
5. Improve networking connectivity between internal and external personal
6. Managing the business environment and enables employees to gain understanding andideas relevant to their work-related
7. Managing intellectual capital and intellectual assets in the workplace

So, I think the conclusion is..

if any organization or company can manage with better Knowledge Management, the company is able to run the company with good business as well, according to what the goals and objectives of the company. work becomes more effective and efficient as it has knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the company owned its own, so the company knows how to manage, better manage human resources, business environment, competitors, financial, and others.
so management is not only limited knowledge of scientific theory only, but in the form of art how to make an organization or company to be developed, successfully according tothe ideals of the company.

source of reference

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manajemen_pengetahuan